th en Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalay University
Professor Lewis Lancaster

อารัมภบทก่อนปาฐกถา วิสาขบูชา 2554
การคาดการณ์ถึงความไม่แน่นอนของประชากรและการพัฒนาทางเศรษฐกิจในอนาคตเป็นประเด็นปัญหาประการหนึ่งในศาสนาพุทธ ด้วยวิถีการปฏิบัติต่างๆ ที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงสั่งสอนไว้ในอดีตนั้นจะสามารถสนองตอบได้ตรงประเด็นได้หรือไม่? จึงเป็นเรื่องที่พุทธศาสนิกชนควรเข้าใจในแก่นแท้ของพระพุทธศาสนาเพราะความรู้ความเข้าใจจะเป็นกุญแจสำคัญสำหรับการแก้ไขปัญหาโดยความไม่ประมาท

ลูอิส แลนคาสเตอร์

Lewis Lancaster, a specialist in the canons of Buddhist texts, was the first student to complete the Ph.D. in Buddhist Studies at the University of Wisconsin. He taught at the University of California, Berkeley, for 33 years, with five years as Chair. By means of a grant from the National Geographic Society, he and a group of students and faculty inventoried texts in monasteries among the Sherpa people in the Himalayas. He then began to research the problems of converting Buddhist texts from Pali and Chinese into computer format, which resulted in major CD ROM databases. That computer experience then led him to form an association of scholars called the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, which is housed on the Berkeley campus and has a thousand affiliates worldwide.

Personal Information:

Lewis R. Lancaster
Professor (Emeritus)
Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720
Telephone (510) 642 3480 FAX (510) 642 6031

B.A. Roanoke College, 1954 (Honorary Doctorate of Letters 2007)
M.Th. USC ST 1958
Ph.D. University of Wisconsin, 1968

1967 - 2000: University of California, Berkeley
D.H. Chen Distinguished Professor of Buddhist Studies (1998-2000)

2004-2006: President, University of the West
1997-present. Director of Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Information School, University of California, Berkeley

Visiting and Exchange Appointments:
1972 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
1981 Dartmouth College
1983 Pekin University, Beijing, China
1988 Rissho University, Tokyo, Japan
2007 Korea University, Seoul, Korea
2010 Hong Kong University
2011 City University of Hong Kong

Adjunct Faculty:
Graduate Theological Union (Berkeley)
Institute of Buddhist Studies (Berkeley)
University of the West (Los Angeles)
Service, University of California, Berkeley:
Chair, Department of East Asian Languages, 1976 1980
Acting Chair, Center for Korean Studies1995, 1998 99
Chair, Organizing Committee, Asian Digital Center

Executive Committees:
Center for Korean Studies (1993-2000)
Center for Chinese Studies (1995-6)
Group in Buddhist Studies (1993-2000)
Group in Asian Studies (1993-1998)
Program in Religious Studies (1993-2000)
Interactive University Project(1996-1998)
Graduate Adviser: Group in Buddhist Studies (1993-2000)
Language Committee, Department of East Asian Languages (1997-98)
Task Force on Department of South and Southeast Asian Studies (1995-6)
Review Committee, Department of South and Southeast Asian Studies (1997-98)
Editor, Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series (1986-2000)

Extramural Positions:
American Academy of Religion Publications Committee
American Academy of Religion Electronic Publications Committee (Chair,1993-94; member 1994-95; Editor 1995-1996)
Association of Asian Studies Committee for East Asian Library Resources (1995-6; Chair 1997-1999)
Association of Asian Studies Electronic Resource Developoment Committee (1995-6)
Berkeley-Korea University Forum Committee (2009-present)
Editor: "Atlas of Chinese Religions" (Academia Sinica)
Electronic Buddhist Text Initiative (Chair, 1993-1996)
Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative ( (1997-present)
Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative Data Input Center, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Co-Director, 1999)
Intercultural Institute of California (San Francisco) (Advisory Board, 1997-98)
International Association for Buddhist Studies (Board member and Treasurer
International Association of Wonhyo Studies (Senior Advisor)
International Digital Consortium for Asian Studies (Co Chair, Organizing Committee
International Standards Organization Committee for CJK Documentation (1997-2000)
International Standards Organization Committee for Model and Framework for Standardization in Multimedia Equipment and Systems (1997-2000)
Korean Culture and Religion Series, University of Toronto, Editor
National Science Foundation Panel member (2008-2010)
Pacific Neighborhood Consortium (Board member 1993-95, Director 1996 present; program manager, Hong Kong, Bangkok, 1994-present)
Research Institute for Tripitika Koreana (Senior Adviser 2008-present)
Scholars Engaged in Electronic Research (member) Advisory Board, 1997-present)
Society for Asian Art ( Advisory Board 1994-present)
Union Catalogue of Buddhist Texts Project, Bangkok (Executive Committee 2008-present)
Virtual Systems Mutilmedia (Board of Directors 2010-present)

Manhae Prize
(Korea Buddhist Foundation Award)

Research Awards (Selected)
2002-2010 Luce Foundation Award for "Atlas of Chinese Religions"
2007-2009 SGER Grant, National Science Foundation
2010-2011 EAGER Grant, National Science Foundation
"Pattern Recognition and Network Analysis"
Lewis R. Lancaster
Professor (Emeritus)
University of California, Berkeley

Publications: (Selected)
"Introduction of Buddhism to Korea and Subsequent Development." In Charles Prebish, ed. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975.

"Buddhism in Korea Survives Suppression and Change." In Charles Prebish, ed. Buddhism: A Modern Perspective. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975. The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

"The Significance of Korean Buddhism in East Asia." In Che-1 hoe Hangukhak kukche haksul hoeui nonmunjip: Papers of the 1st International Conference on Korean Studies. Songnam: Hanguk chongshin munhwa yonguwon, 1980.

"The Korean Buddhist Canon and Its Importance." Korean Studies Forum 7 (Summer- Fall 1981)

"Comparison of the Two Carvings of the Korean Buddhist Canon." Korea Journal 23:8 (August 1983)

"Extant Chinese Sources for the Study of the Korean Buddhist Canon." In Segye-sok ui Hanguk munhwa: Yulgok 400 chugi e chuum hayo: Che-3 hoe kukche haksul hoeui nonmunjip: Korean Culture and Its Characteristics on the Occasion of the 400th Anniversary of Yi Yulgok's Death: Papers of the 3rd International Conference. Songnam: Hanguk chongshin munhwa yonguwon, 1985.

"Buddhist Studies." The Encyclopedia of Religion edited by M. Eliade. Vol 2, 1988.

"Maitreya in Korea," Maitreya: The Future Buddha, edited by Alan Sponberg and Helen Hardacre, Cambridge University Press: New York, 1988.
Reprint: "Maitreya in Korea," Korea UNESCO Journal, 1989.

"Maitreya in Korean Art," Newsletter of the Society for Asian Art, San Francisco, 1989.
Review: Buddhism Under the Tang by S. Weinstein, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Spring, 1989.
Introduction of Buddhism to Korea: The Three Kingdoms Period, edited with C.S. Yu, Series on Korean Religion and Culture, Vol. 3, Asian Humanities Press: Berkeley, 1989.

The Buddhist Heritage edited by Tadeusz Skorupski, Buddhica Britannica Series Continua I, Institute of Buddhist Studies, Tring U.K., 1989.

"The Terminology of the Platform Sutra in the Chinese Buddhist Canon," Report of the International Conference on Ch'an Buddhism, edited by John McRae, Fo Kuan Shan Foundation: Taipei, 1989. Lancaster, Lewis R. and C.S. Yu, eds. Introduction of Buddhism to Korea: New Cultural Patterns. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1989.

"Buddhism and Mass Culture," Pulgyo volume 6, Wonhyo Institute: Seoul, 1990. Translation into Korean, Pulgyo volume 5

"Buddhism and the Contemporary World: The Problem of Social Action in an Urban Environment," Radical Conservatism Buddhism in the Contemproary World: Articles in Honor of Bhikkhu Buddhadasa, edited by S. Sivaraksa, Thai Inter Religious Commission for Development: Bangkok, 1990. Reprint in Buddhist Ethics and Modern Society edited by Charles Fu and Sandra Wawrytko, Greenwood Press: New York, 1992.

"Ganesha in China: The Transformation of the Demonic," Ganesha, edited by Robert Brown, SUNY Press: Albany, 1991.

"The Dating of the Buddha in Chinese Buddhism," The Dating of the Historical Buddha Part I, (Symposien zur Buddhismusforschung, IV,1) edited by Heinz Bechert, Vandenhoeck & Ruprechtin: Gottingen, 1991.

"The Indian Material in the Hae-in Monastery Block Prints." Han-In munhwa 9-10 (1991)

"Buddhism and the Collective Perceptions of our Time: A Study of Religious Traditions with Reference to the Teachings of Won Buddhism," in Won Buddhism Vol. 4 No. 1, 1991. Reprint from: Proceedings of the International Academic Conference on World Community and Religion April 25 27, 1991 The Assimilation of Buddhism in Korea: The Unified Silla Period, edited with C.S. Yu, Series on Korean Religion and Culture, Vol. 4, Asian Humanities Press: Berkeley, 1991

"Prajnaparamita and the Dialogue Structure of Buddhist exts" Commerative Volumes in Honor of Professor H. Mano, Taisho University, Tokyo, 1992.
Review, "Chinese Buddhism" by Arthur Wright, Journal of Religion, vol. 72, no. 4, October 1992, pp. 627-628s.

"Dunhuang: The Buddhist Side of the Story", Buddhist Studies, edited by A. Guruge, UNESCO: Paris, 1993, 105-111.

"Electronic Publication of Buddhist Texts" Religious News Letter, American Academy of Religion: Atlanta,1993.

"Buddhism: Past and Present Traditions," Encounter of Wisdom Between Buddhism and Science: Essays in Honour of Prof. Keisho Tsukamoto, Kosei Publishing: Tokyo, 1993, pp. 1-7

"The Translation of Buddhist Texts," Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Pergamon Press: New York, 1994. V 1 pp. 425-427.

"Buddhist Studies and the New Technology." Pacific World, New Series, No. 11, Institute of Buddhist Studies: Berkeley, 1995, pp. 175 182.

"Buddhism of Contemporary Korea: A Reappraisal" Buddhist Studies Journal. Dongguk University: Seoul, 1995.

"Buddhism and Filial Piety". Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference of the Academy of Korean Studies, Seoul, 1995.

CD ROM, Siam Edition of the Pali Canon. Supachai Tangwongsan,, Mahidol University Computer Center: Bangkok, 1995

"Canonic Texts" Mongolia: The Legacy of Chinggis Khan, edited by Patricia Berger and Terese Tse Bartholomew, Thames and Hudson: London, 1995, pp. 186 187. Buddhism in Koryo: A Royal Religion, edited with Kikun Suh and Chai shin Yu. Korea Research Monograph #21, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California: Berkeley, 1996. Buddhism of Early Choson: Suppression and Transformation, edited with Chai shin Yu. Korea Research Monograph #22, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California: Berkeley, 1996.

"The Buddhist Canon in the Koryo Period," Buddhism in Koryo: A Royal Religion, edited by Kikun Sub and Chai shin Yu. Korea Research Monograph #21, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California: Berkeley, 1996. CD ROM, Koryo Buddhist Canon. Ven. Chongnim, et al, Samsung Foundation: Seoul, 1996

"Buddhism and Ecology: Collective Cultural Perceptions," Buddhism and Ecology, edited by Mary Ellen Tucker, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1997.

"Preface" Research on Electronic Cultural Atlas Project of Korea, Computers and the Humanities vol. 9, edited by Hae-un Rii et. Al. Institute of Korean Culture: Korea University, Seoul, 1997. Religion and Society in Contemporary Korea, edited with Richard Payne, Korea Research Monograph 24, Institute of East Asian Studies: Berkeley, 1997.

"The Koryo Edition of the Buddhist Canon: New Sources for Research." Perspectives on Korea, edited by Sang Oak Lee and Duk Soo Park, University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu, Hawaii, 1998.

"The Buddhist Tradition in Late Choson: A Reappraisal." Review of Korean Studies, vol. 1, 1998.

"The Silla Son Masters and the Study of East Asian Buddhism" Proceedings of the International Conference on Son Buddhism Seoul: Korea, 2000.

"The Role and Significance of Korean Son in the Study of East Asian Buddhism" Chung-hwa Buddhist Journal, No. 13.2 , 2000.

"Apocrypha: Buddhist" Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion. Elsevier Science: Oxford, 2001 The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue, Lewis R. Lancaster and Sungbae Park, University of California Press: Berkeley, 1979. Digital Reprint, by Charles Muller Japan, 2001.

"The Dunhuang manuscripts: the current state of research" Dunhuang Manuscript Forgeries ed. By Susan Whitfield. British Library: London, 2002.

"Buddhist Ethical Concerns: The Problem of the Universal and the Particular," Hsilai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism. International Academy of Buddhism: Los Angeles, vol. 3, Spring, 2002.

"The Buddhist Journey Along the Silk Road," The Silk Road Project: Arts and Humanities, University of California: Berkeley, 2002.

"The Dunhuang Manuscripts: The Current State of Research." Dunhuang Manuscript Forgeries, edited by Susan Whitfield, British Library Studies in Conservation Science, vol 3, London, 2002.

"Fragments and Forgeries: Strategies for Judging Authenticity," Dunhuang Manuscript Forgeries edited by Susan Whitfield, British Library Studies in Conservation Science, vol. 3, London, 2002.

"The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and the North American Religion Atlas," with David J. Bodenhamer, Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History, edited by Anne Kelly Knowles, ESRI Press: Redlands, CA (2002).

"Wonhyo: A Study of His Compilations," International Journal of Buddhist Thought and Culture Vol 2 Los Angeles, 2003.

"Resources and New Strategies for Central Asian Studies: The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative Approach," with Ruth Mostern, Central Eurasian Studies Review Volume 2, Number 3, Central Eurasian Studies Society (2003).

"Buddhism and the Digital Age," Hsilai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism, International Academy of Buddhist Studies, vol. 4. Los Angeles, 2003.

"Prajnaparamita" in ed. The Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 2 volumes. Ed. by Robert Buswell Jr., New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003.

"Korean Buddhism: The American Experience," Korean Buddhism Chogye Order of America, Inc., Almanac, The 30th Anniversary of Kwan Um Temple, Los Angeles, March 2004.

"Combining Time, Place, and Topic: The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative" with Michael Buckland, D-Lib Magazine No. 5, May 2004.

"Buddhism and Democracy," Hsilai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism, International Academy of Buddhism: Los Angeles, vol. 5, 2004.

"Buddhism and Culture," Hsi Lai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism, International Academy of Buddhism: Los Angeles, Volume 6. 2005.

"Virtual Reality Within the Humanities" The Reconstruction of Archaeological Landscapes through Digital Technologies edited by Maurizio Forte BAR International Series 1379: London 2005.

"Buddhist Education and New Technology" Proceedings of the First World Buddhist Forum, Hangzhou, 2006.

"Korean Religious Society" The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions, edited by Mark Juergensmeyer, Oxford University Press, 2006

"Advances in Discovery: The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative Experience." With Michael Buckland. First Monday. 21 July 2006.

"Referencing Digital Heritage: Who, When, What, Where" Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Digital Exchange Forum Korea Information Society Development Institute: Seoul. 2006.

"Cultural Exchange: The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative" Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Southeast Asian Cultural Values. Royal Academy of Cambodia: Siem Reap. 2006

"Buddhism and Technology"
"Digital Research Tools"
"Cyber Buddhism"
"Electronic Publications"
"Computers and Buddhist Cultural Heritage"

Articles in Encyclopedia of Buddhism edited by Damien Keown and Charles S. Prebish (Routledge:London and New York), 2007.

"Bodhisattvas and Celibacy: Buddhism among Kings and Merchants" Proceedings for a Conference of the 50th anniversary of the Founding of the Institute of Korean Culture-Celibacy and Enlightenment/Salvation . Korea University: Seoul. 2007.

"The First Koryo Printed Version of the Buddhist Canon: Its Place in Contemporary Research." Nanzen-ji Collection of Buddhist Scriptures and the History of the Tripitake Tradition in East Asia. Tripitaka Koreana Institute: Seoul. 2007.

"Buddhism and the New Technology: An Overview" Buddhism in the Digital Age: Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative edited by Le Manh That and Thich Nhattu. Vietnam Buddhist University: Ho Chi Minh. 2008

"The Dosan Digital Library and the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative" Dosan: Bridging the Pacific Dosan Foundation: Seoul. 2008

"Digital Buddhist Texts and Buddhist Universities" Journal of International Association of Buddhist Universities, Bangkok, Vol 2, September, 2008.

"Buddhist Canons: Embodiment of Cultural and National Identity" Proceedings for 2009 Berkeley-Ku Forum on East Asian Cultural Studies. Seoul: 2009.

"Pattern Recognition and Analysis in the Chinese Buddhist Canon: A Study of 'Original Enlightenment'". Pacific World. Third Series, vol 60, 2010

"Transdiscipline" Proceedings of Virtual Systems Multimedia 2010. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology: Seoul. (October) 2010.

"Critical Editing of Buddhist Texts" Journal of Buddhist Studies. Vol Viii. Colombo. 2011.

Buddhism one-hour documentary in the PBS Series "Religions of the World"
Edited by S. Kopel. Narrator: Ben Kingsley, 1998.
(Helped with conception, editing, writing of script and appear for 15 minute segment)
Buddhism in the Global Age of Technology "Burke Lecture, University of California, San Diego) C-SPAN, 2008/09.
(In preparation: Documentary of my research: 1000th Anniversary of Printing the Buddhist Canon in Goryeo. Korea Broadcasting System Summer, 2011 airing)

Buddhism in the Global Age of Technology YouTube: University of California Lectures, 2008-present):
Contemporary Buddhism Buddhist Geeks: Interview (2010).

Lewis Lancaster: Buddhism in a Global Age of Technology

Lewis Lancaster on Buddhist philosophy, perception and cognitive neuroscience

East Asian Buddhism and Won-Buddhism in the 21st Century By Professor Lewis R. Lancaster

More articles:
The Role and Significance of Korean Son in the Study of East Asian Buddhism

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